Effect of oxygen on the evaporation rate of lead from liquid copper under reduced pressure

T. Yoshida, T. Nagasaka, M. Hino

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Citations (Scopus)


Previously, the present authors have investigated the effects of temperature and pressure on the evaporation rates of Pb and Zn from liquid copper under reduced pressure. Oxygen does easily contaminate molten metal during high temperature processing and is known as a strong surface active element. In this study, the effect of oxygen on the evaporation rate of Pb from liquid copper was discussed at 1 473 K and 1.3 kPa. The rate constant was supposed to be slower with oxygen content due to lowering the interfacial chemical reaction rate. However, the rate constant increased with oxygen content in the present experiment. Assuming that the acceleration of vaporization is due to the volatile lead oxide, the rate equation was derived for the evaporation of lead oxide together with that of metallic Pb. As a result of the analysis for the present experiment, it was found that Pb evaporated from copper melt containing higher oxygen in the form of PbO. The presence of PbO in the vapor phase was confirmed by the ma ss spectroscopy. The rate mechanism of vaporization of Sn and Cu from liquid steel containing oxygen have also been discussed.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)706-715
Number of pages10
JournalISIJ International
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - 2001


  • Copper scrap
  • Evaporation rate constant
  • Lead oxide
  • Mass transfer
  • Oxygen
  • Rate determining step
  • Reduced pressure
  • Surface tension
  • Tramp element


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