Effect of Tool Geometries on “Heat-Input” During Friction Stir Welding of Aluminum Alloys

Yutaka S. Sato, Yuichiro Tanai, Dalong Yi, Tianbo Zhao, Hiroyuki Kokawa

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapterpeer-review


Many previous studies proposed equations and models to estimate the heat-input of FSW, but their verifications would be still insufficient. In this study, the heat-input was calorimetrically measured during FSW of aluminum alloys with various welding tools having different shapes, and the effect of tool geometries on heat-input was examined. The measured heat-input increased with increasing shoulder diameter, which was in good agreement with many previous works. Interestingly, the heat-input strongly depended on the probe diameter and length. An attempt to correlate the heat-input with the tool surface area was made, virtually showing that the heat-input linearly increased with increasing “effective surface area” defined as (half of shoulder surface area + probe column surface area + probe tip surface area). This result experimentally suggested that the effect of probe dimension on heat-input was unexpectedly high. Moreover, an empirical equation estimating the heat-input during FSW of aluminum alloys from the welding parameters and the tool geometry was successfully established.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationMinerals, Metals and Materials Series
PublisherSpringer Science and Business Media Deutschland GmbH
Number of pages7
Publication statusPublished - 2021

Publication series

NameMinerals, Metals and Materials Series
ISSN (Print)2367-1181
ISSN (Electronic)2367-1696


  • Aluminum alloys
  • Calorimetry
  • Friction stir welding
  • Heat-input
  • Tool shape


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