Effects of high-energy particles on accretion flows onto a supermassive black hole

Shigeo S. Kimura, Kenji Toma, Fumio Takahara

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

22 Citations (Scopus)


We study the effects of high-energy particles (HEPs) on the accretion flows onto a supermassive black hole and luminosities of escaping particles such as protons, neutrons, gamma rays, and neutrinos. We formulate a onedimensional model of the two-component accretion flow consisting of thermal particles and HEPs, supposing that some fraction of the released energy is converted to the acceleration of HEPs. The thermal component is governed by fluid dynamics while the HEPs obey the moment equations of the diffusionconvection equation. By solving the time evolution of these equations, we obtain advection-dominated flows as the steady state solutions. The effects of the HEPs on the flow structures turn out to be small even if the pressure of the HEPs dominates over the thermal pressure. For a model in which the escaping protons take away almost all the energy released, the HEPs have a large enough influence to make the flow have a Keplerian angular velocity at the inner region. We calculate the luminosities of the escaping particles for these steady solutions. The escaping particles can extract the energy from about 10?4 Ṁc2 to 10?2 Ṁc2, where Ṁ is the mass accretion rate. The luminosities of the escaping particles depend on parameters such as the injection Lorentz factors, the mass accretion rates, and the diffusion coefficients.We also discuss some implications on the relativistic jet production by the escaping particles.

Original languageEnglish
Article number100
JournalAstrophysical Journal
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 2014 Aug 20


  • accretion, accretion disks
  • galaxies: jets
  • galaxies: nuclei
  • neutrinos
  • relativistic processes


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