Effects of indacaterol on the LPS-evoked changes in fluid secretion rate and pH in swine tracheal membrane

Hidemi Aritake, Tsutomu Tamada, Koji Murakami, Shunichi Gamo, Masayuki Nara, Itsuro Kazama, Masakazu Ichinose, Hisatoshi Sugiura

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2 Citations (Scopus)


An acquired dysregulation of airway secretion is likely involved in the pathophysiology of chronic bronchitis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Nowadays, it is widely known that several kinds of long-acting bronchodilators reduce the frequency of COPD exacerbations. However, limited data are available concerning the complementary additive effects on airflow obstruction. Using an optical method and a selective pH indicator, we succeeded in evaluating the gland secretion rate and the pH in swine tracheal membrane. A physiologically relevant concentration of acetylcholine (ACh) 100 nM induced a gradual increase in the amount of gland secretion. Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) accelerated the ACh-induced secretory responses up to around threefold and lowered the pH level significantly. Long-acting β2-agonists (LABAs) including indacaterol (IND), formoterol, and salmeterol restored the LPS-induced changes in both the hypersecretion and acidification. The subsequent addition of the long-acting muscarine antagonist, glycopyrronium, further increased the pH values. Two different inhibitors for cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), NPPB and CFTRinh172, abolished the IND-mediated pH normalization in the presence of both ACh and ACh + LPS. Both immunofluorescence staining and western blotting analysis revealed that LPS downregulated the abundant expression of CFTR protein. However, IND did not restore the LPS-induced decrease in CFTR expression on Calu-3 cells. These findings suggest that the activation of cAMP-dependent HCO3 secretion through CFTR would be partly involved in the IND-mediated pH normalization in gland secretion and may be suitable for the maintenance of airway defense against exacerbating factors including LPS.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)883-896
Number of pages14
JournalPflugers Archiv European Journal of Physiology
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 2021 Jun


  • Bicarbonate
  • Calu-3
  • CFTR
  • LABA
  • Submucosal gland


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