Effects of nitrogen addition on microstructure and mechanical behavior of biomedical Co-Cr-Mo alloys

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65 Citations (Scopus)


In the present study, the microstructures and tensile deformation behaviors of biomedical Co-29Cr-6Mo (wt%) alloys containing different concentrations of nitrogen (0-0.24. wt%) were systematically investigated. As the nitrogen concentration increased, the volume fraction of athermal ε martensite decreased, because nanoprecipitates hindered the formation of stacking faults (SFs) by acting as obstacles to Shockley partial dislocation formation, and athermal ε martensite usually forms through the regular overlapping of SFs. The formation of the athermal ε martensite was completely suppressed when the nitrogen concentration exceeded 0.10. wt%, resulting in a simultaneous improvement in the strength and ductility of the alloys. It was found that the glide of the Shockley partial dislocations and the strain-induced γ (fcc)→ε (hcp) martensitic transformation (SIMT) operated as the primary deformation mechanisms. However, adding nitrogen reduced the work hardening by suppressing the formation of the SFs and preventing the SIMT from taking place. This resulted in an intrinsic decrease in the tensile ductility of the alloys. It is also shown that all the alloys exhibited premature fractures owing to the SIMT. The formation of annealing twins in the γ grains is found to be enhanced by nitrogen addition and to promote the SIMT, resulting in a reduction in the elongation-to-failure due to nitrogen addition. These results should aid in the design of alloys that contain nitrogen.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)417-426
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
Publication statusPublished - 2014 Jan


  • Biomedical Co-Cr-Mo alloys
  • Mechanical properties
  • Microstructures
  • Nitrogen addition
  • γ→ε martensitic transformation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biomaterials
  • Biomedical Engineering
  • Mechanics of Materials


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