In chronic kidney disease, elevated levels of circulating uremic toxins are associated with a variety of symptoms and organ dysfunction. Indoxyl sulfate (IS) and p-cresyl sulfate (pCS) are microbiota-derived metabolites and representative uremic toxins. We have previously shown that the oral adsorbent AST-120 profoundly reduced pCS compared to IS in adenine-induced renal failure in mice. However, the mechanisms of the different attenuation effects of AST-120 between IS and pCS are unclear. To clarify the difference of AST-120 on IS and pCS, we investigated the levels of fecal indole and p-cresol, the respective precursors of IS and pCS, and examined the influence on the gut microbiota. Although fecal indole was detected in all groups analyzed, fecal p-cresol was not detected in AST-120 treatment groups. In genus level, a total of 23 organisms were significantly changed by renal failure or AST-120 treatment. Especially, AST-120 reduced the abundance of Erysipelotrichaceae uncultured and Clostridium sensu stricto 1, which have a gene involved in p-cresol production. Our findings suggest that, in addition to the adsorption of the uremic toxin precursors, AST-120 affects the abundance of some gut microbiota in normal and renal failure conditions, thereby explaining the different attenuation effects on IS and pCS.
|Number of pages||7|
|Journal||Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications|
|Publication status||Published - 2020 May 7|
- Chronic kidney disease