Effects of the oral adsorbent AST-120 on fecal p-cresol and indole levels and on the gut microbiota composition

Emiko Sato, Koji Hosomi, Akiyo Sekimoto, Eikan Mishima, Yuji Oe, Daisuke Saigusa, Sadayoshi Ito, Takaaki Abe, Hiroshi Sato, Jun Kunisawa, Toshimitsu Niwa, Nobuyuki Takahashi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

14 Citations (Scopus)


In chronic kidney disease, elevated levels of circulating uremic toxins are associated with a variety of symptoms and organ dysfunction. Indoxyl sulfate (IS) and p-cresyl sulfate (pCS) are microbiota-derived metabolites and representative uremic toxins. We have previously shown that the oral adsorbent AST-120 profoundly reduced pCS compared to IS in adenine-induced renal failure in mice. However, the mechanisms of the different attenuation effects of AST-120 between IS and pCS are unclear. To clarify the difference of AST-120 on IS and pCS, we investigated the levels of fecal indole and p-cresol, the respective precursors of IS and pCS, and examined the influence on the gut microbiota. Although fecal indole was detected in all groups analyzed, fecal p-cresol was not detected in AST-120 treatment groups. In genus level, a total of 23 organisms were significantly changed by renal failure or AST-120 treatment. Especially, AST-120 reduced the abundance of Erysipelotrichaceae uncultured and Clostridium sensu stricto 1, which have a gene involved in p-cresol production. Our findings suggest that, in addition to the adsorption of the uremic toxin precursors, AST-120 affects the abundance of some gut microbiota in normal and renal failure conditions, thereby explaining the different attenuation effects on IS and pCS.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)773-779
Number of pages7
JournalBiochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2020 May 7


  • AST-120
  • Chronic kidney disease
  • Indole
  • p-cresol


Dive into the research topics of 'Effects of the oral adsorbent AST-120 on fecal p-cresol and indole levels and on the gut microbiota composition'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this