Moyamoya disease can be associated with a rapidly progressive course in young patients. This report describes a patient with moyamoya disease who experienced rapid disease progression, resulting in cerebral infarction and a wide area of diminished cerebral perfusion. Double superficial temporal artery (STA)-middle cerebral artery (MCA) anastomoses were utilized to immediately increase cerebral perfusion in the affected area. This case involved a 5-year-old girl who had been diagnosed with moyamoya disease and had undergone STA-MCA anastomosis with indirect bypass in the right hemisphere at the age of 3. At the time of presentation, magnetic resonance (MR) imaging showed cerebral infarction at the left frontal lobe, and MR angiography showed rapidly progressive narrowing of the left MCA that had not been present 3 months prior. N-isopropyl-p-[I123] iodoamphetamine single-photon emission computed tomography (IMP-SPECT) showed markedly decreased uptake in the left hemisphere. She underwent emergent STA-MCA double anastomoses with indirect bypass on the left side. IMP-SPECT showed marked increase in uptake in the left hemisphere. The anterior cerebral artery (ACA) territory adjacent to the cerebral infarction also showed increased uptake on the SPECT. Postoperatively, there were no clinical or radiographic indications of ischemic or hemorrhagic complications. Double anastomoses are effective in quickly and significantly increasing blood flow. The postoperative course in this case was uneventful. Double anastomoses are a surgical option for patients with moyamoya disease who show rapid disease progression, even in those in the acute phase of cerebral infarction.
- Cerebral infarction
- Moyamoya disease
- Superficial temporal artery-middle cerebral artery double anastomoses