In 2009, Gradwohl, Naor, Pinkas, and Rothblum proposed physical zero-knowledge proof protocols for Sudoku. That is, for a puzzle instance of Sudoku, their excellent protocols allow a prover to convince a verifier that there is a solution to the Sudoku puzzle and the prover knows it, without revealing any information about the solution. The possible drawback is that the existing protocols have an extractability error with a non-zero probability, or need special cards (such as scratch-off cards). Thus, in this study, we propose new protocols to perform zero-knowledge proof of knowledge for Sudoku using a normal deck of playing cards with no extractability error. Our protocols can be easily implemented by humans with a reasonable number of playing cards.
- Card-based cryptography
- Zero-knowledge proof