A necessary and sufficient conditions for a certain class of periodic unitary transition operators to have eigenvalues are given. Applying this, it is shown that Grover walks in any dimension has both of ±1 as eigenvalues and it has no other eigenvalues. It is also shown that the lazy Grover walks in any dimension has 1 as an eigenvalue, and it has no other eigenvalues. As a result, a localization phenomenon occurs for these quantum walks. A general conditions for the existence of eigenvalues can be applied also to certain quantum walks of Fourier type. It is shown that the two-dimensional Fourier walk does not have eigenvalues and hence it is not localized at any point. Some other topics, such as Grover walks on the triangular lattice, products and deformations of Grover walks, are also discussed.
- Grover and Fourier walks
- Quantum walk