Zeolite templated carbon (ZTC) was electrochemically oxidized under various conditions, and its chemistry and structural evolution were compared to those produced by conventional chemical oxidation. In both oxidation methods, a general loss of the original structure regularity and high surface area was observed with increasing amount of oxidation. However, the electrochemical method showed much better controllability and enabled the generation of a large number of oxygen functional groups while retaining the original structure of the ZTC. Unlike chemical treatments, highly microporous carbons with an ordered 3-D structure, high surface area (ranging between 1900 and 3500 m2/g) and a large number of oxygen groups (O = 11,000-3300 μmol/g), have been prepared by the electrochemical method. Some insights into the electrooxidation mechanism of carbon materials are proposed from the obtained polarization curves, using ZTC as a model carbon material.