Electrolytic reduction of mixed (Fe, Ti) oxide using molten calcium chloride electrolyte

Mrutyunjay Panigrahi, Atsushi Iizuka, Etsuro Shibata, Takashi Nakamura

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

38 Citations (Scopus)


The production of high-purity metals or alloys using effective technologies is critical for future industrialization. With this aim in mind, a fundamental study of electrolysis in molten CaCl2 electrolytes was conducted to develop a new production process for ferrotitanium (Fe-Ti) intermetallic alloys. Mixed solid oxides of TiO2 and Fe2O3 were used in a molar ratio of 5.44:1.00. In this composition of Ti and Fe, FeTi and β-Ti containing iron can co-exist in equilibrium. A mixed solid (Fe, Ti) oxide was reduced electrochemically in a molten CaCl2 electrolyte at 950 °C. The metallic samples formed by electrolytic reduction of the mixed solid (Fe, Ti) oxide were analyzed using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy/energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, electron-probe microanalysis, X-ray fluorescence spectrometry, inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy, ion chromatography, and oxygen and carbon analyzers. The oxide pellets were successfully reduced to a highly purified dense intermetallic solid of β-Ti (FeTi4) and FeTi containing low levels of impurities, for example, less than 0.01 mass% of carbon.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)545-552
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Alloys and Compounds
Publication statusPublished - 2013 Feb 15


  • CaCl
  • Electrolysis
  • Electrolyte
  • FeTi alloy


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