We present a review of elemental abundances in the Milky Way stellar disk, bulge, and halo with a focus on data derived from high-resolution stellar spectra. These data are fundamental in disentangling the formation history and subsequent evolution of the Milky Way. Information from such data is still limited and confined to narrowly defined stellar samples. The astrometric Gaia satellite will soon be launched by the European Space Agency. Its final data set will revolutionize information on the motions of a billion stars in the Milky Way. This will be complemented by several ground-based observational campaigns, in particular spectroscopic follow-up to study elemental abundances in the stars in detail. Our review shows the very rich and intriguing picture built from rather small and local samples. The Gaia data deserve to be complemented by data of the same high quality that have been collected for the solar neighborhood.