Partial nitrification-anammox process is promising in leachate treatment, but the 11% residue nitrate limits the total nitrogen removal efficiency. Denitrification or partial denitrification and anammox are both practical polishing processes of anammox effluent, requiring extra electron donors. Fortunately, there are organic matter, sulfide and methane in leachate or produced by leachate treatment, which can serve as onsite electron donors. In this review, the mechanisms and processes using these three kinds of electron donors for residue nitrate reduction in anammox effluent of leachate are systematically summarized and discussed. It can be concluded that, biodegradable organic matter is an effective electron donor, sulfide is a promising electron donor, methane is a potential electron donor. Two possible applications in future based on anammox treatment of fresh and mature leachate using sulfide and methane as onsite electron donors are proposed. Through sulfide reutilization, energy-saving with about 14% of aeration reduction can be achieved.
- Advanced nitrogen removal
- Electron donors