Background: Little is known regarding the risk of tumor dissemination when percutaneous biliary drainage is used before surgical resection of perihilar cholangiocarcinoma (PHC). We aimed to compare the incidence of tumor dissemination after preoperative endoscopic nasobiliary drainage (ENBD) with that after percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (PTBD) for PHC. Methods: Data from 208 consecutive patients who underwent PHC resection between 2000 and 2013 were retrospectively analyzed. The influence of drainage type on incidence of tumor dissemination was examined. Seventy-six patients underwent ENBD (37%), 87 underwent PTBD (42%), and 45 underwent surgery without preoperative biliary drainage (WD, 22%). Results: The respective 2- and 5-year estimated cumulative incidences of tumor dissemination in the ENBD group (11.8/14.6%) were lower than in the PTBD group (28.8/35.9%, p = 0.003) and equivalent to that in the WD group (11.2/15.9%, p = NS). PTBD (hazard ratio [HR] vs. ENBD, 2.80) was an independent risk factor for postoperative tumor dissemination in the multivariate analysis. The 2- and 5-year disease-specific survival rates were higher in the ENBD group (67.6/47.3%) than in the PTBD group (56.6/27.8%, p = 0.032) and equivalent to that in the WD group (64.9/53.8%, p = NS). However, drainage type was not an independent risk factor in multivariate analysis of disease-specific survival. Conclusion: For patients with PHC, the associated risk of postoperative tumor dissemination in the ENBD group was lower than in the PTBD group and equivalent to that in the WD group. Thus, ENBD is the ideal procedure for preoperative biliary drainage.
- Bile duct cancer