This book describes the emergent endohedral metallofullerene, lithium-containing fullerene LiatC60, with an overview from its history to recent application research. The book covers synthesis, preparation, purification, structure, physical and chemical properties, derivatization, computational theoretical studies, and device application of LiatC60. Readers can learn cutting-edge nanotechnology of this exotic nanocarbon material, which is expected to deliver future solutions in clean energy and bio devices. This work is by a researcher who has long experience in carbon nanomaterials-more than 15 years with his contributing coworkers. The level of the book is appropriate for graduate students, post-docs researchers, and young faculty members who are interested in nanomaterials from the point of view of chemistry and physics.