Energy consumption analysis for vehicle production through a material flow approach

Fernando Enzo Kenta Sato, Toshihiko Nakata

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

18 Citations (Scopus)


The aim of this study is to comprehensively evaluate the energy consumption in the automotive industry, clarifying the effect of its productive processes. For this propose, the material flow of the vehicles has been elaborated, from mining to vehicle assembly. Initially, processes where each type of material was used, and the relationship between them, were clarified. Subsequently, material flow was elaborated, while considering materials input in each process. Consequently, the consumption of energy resources (i.e., oil, natural gas, coal, and electricity) was calculated. Open data were utilized, and the effects on the Japanese vehicle market were analyzed as a case study. Our results indicate that the energy that is required for vehicle production is 41.8 MJ/kg per vehicle, where mining and material production processes represent 68% of the total consumption. Moreover, 5.23 kg of raw materials and energy resources are required to produce 1 kg of vehicle. Finally, this study proposed values of energy consumption per mass of part produced, which can be used to facilitate future material and energy analysis for the automotive industry. Those values can be adopted and modified as necessary, allowing for possible changes in future premises to be incorporated.

Original languageEnglish
Article number2396
Issue number9
Publication statusPublished - 2020 May


  • Energy consumption
  • Material consumption
  • Productive process
  • Vehicle


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