Energy-Efficient Convolution Module with Flexible Bit-Adjustment Method and ADC Multiplier Architecture for Industrial IoT

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1 Citation (Scopus)


Offloading the unprecedented growing data to the edge exhibits a mainstream trend in the Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) era, delivering far-reaching impacts in all aspects of our daily lives, including transportation, health care, and entertainment. However, voluminous data analyzes and processing at the edge will unavoidably raise the edge processor's burden and dramatically expand its design complexity and energy dissipation. This article proposes a flexible bit-adjustment-based energy-efficient convolution module with an approximate divide-and-conquer (ADC) multiplier for compact and low-power edge processor design. The maximum distribution search technique is utilized to exploit the optimal fixed-point representation format for both input and output of the convolution module. The neural network manifests the same precision as a 32-b floating-point multiplication deploying the determined representation formats. An ADC multiplier is proposed to realize the convolution module by eliminating the high-bit multiplication between weights and feature maps. The dynamic power consumption of the ADC multiplier-based convolution module with the Q(6, 9) input and Q(7, 8) output representation formats is 3.85% lower than that of the 16-b signed multiplication circuit. Furthermore, the dynamic power consumption with Q(6, 9) input is capable of being decreased by 15.38% for the 16-b convolution if the output is represented by the Q(1, 14) format and by up to 39.93% for the 64-b multiplication. The practical verification system of the convolution module working on a field-programmable gate array evaluation board exhibits an outstanding low-power characteristic.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3055-3065
Number of pages11
JournalIEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 2022 May 1


  • Approximate divide-and-conquer (ADC) multiplier
  • Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT)
  • energy-efficient convolution module
  • flexible bit-adjustment
  • quantization

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Control and Systems Engineering
  • Information Systems
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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