The epitaxial growth process of titanium nitride (TiN) films, formed by implanting nitrogen ions (N+2) with 62 keV into 100-nm-thick Ti films grown on NaCl substrates held at 250°C, has been studied by transmission electron microscopy. Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, and elastic recoil detection analysis. It has been revealed that the (001)-oriented TiNy is epitaxially grown by N implantation into the as-grown (03·5)-oriented hcp Ti. The TiNy is formed by the transformation of the hcp Ti to (001)-oriented fcc Ti during the N implantation, partially inheriting the atomic arrangement of the square and/or the octahedron of the hcp Ti, as well as the occupation of N in octahedral sites of the fcc Ti. Strain due to the expansion of the lattice and/or the volume of hcp Ti by N implantation can be considered as one of the driving forces for the hcp-fcc transformation of the Ti lattice. The nitriding mechanism of epitaxial Ti thin films is discussed.
|Number of pages||8|
|Journal||Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology A: Vacuum, Surfaces and Films|
|Publication status||Published - 1998|