Nitrogen ions (N+2) with energy 62 keV were implanted into 100 nm thick Ti films evaporated onto thermally cleaned NaCl substrates. Unimplanted and N-implanted Ti films were examined by transmission electron microscopy, Rutherford backscattering spectrometry and elastic recoil detection analysis. It was revealed that N-implantation expands the h.c.p. Ti lattice and reduces the hydrogen concentration in the evaporated Ti film. The former induces the h.c.p.-f.c.c. transformation and then leads to the growth of (001) oriented TiNy by occupation of the octahedral sites in the f.c.c. Ti sublattice by N. The latter indicates the escape of H from TiHx and leads to the growth of (110) oriented TiNy by the similar occupation by N.
- Nitrogen implantation
- Rutherford backscattering spectrometry
- Titanium nitride
- Transmission electron microscopy (TEM)