Esterification of high free fatty acids in supercritical methanol using sulfated angel wing shells as catalyst

O. Nur Syazwani, M. Lokman Ibrahim, Wahyudiono, Hideki Kanda, Motonobu Goto, Y. H. Taufiq-Yap

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

28 Citations (Scopus)


In this research, shells of Cyrtopleura costata, commonly known as angel wing, were used to prepare sulfated calcined angel wing shell (CAWS) catalysts by a simple, low-cost method. The produced CAWS-SO4catalyst was characterized by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transmission infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), temperature programmed desorption of CO2and NH3(CO2-TPD and NH3-TPD), BET surface area analysis and variable pressure scanning electron microscopy (VP-SEM). The esterification of palm fatty acid distillate (PFAD) by supercritical methanol was successfully performed to obtain the high fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) with yield of 98% at the optimum methanol/PFAD molar ratio of 6/1, 2 wt.% catalyst loading, 290 °C in 15 min. The catalyst could also be reused up to seven cycles with a FAME yield higher than 80% in the last cycle. The characterization of spent catalyst has been performed by using XRD, FTIR, TPD-NH3and SEM.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-9
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Supercritical Fluids
Publication statusPublished - 2017
Externally publishedYes


  • Biodiesel
  • Esterification
  • Sulfated calcium oxide
  • Supercritical
  • Waste shell

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Chemical Engineering(all)
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Physical and Theoretical Chemistry


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