Evaluating card-based protocols in terms of execution time

Daiki Miyahara, Itaru Ueda, Yu-Ichi Hayashi, Takaaki Mizuki, Hideaki Sone

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)


Card-based cryptography is an attractive and unconventional computation model; it provides secure computing methods using a deck of physical cards. It is noteworthy that a card-based protocol can be easily executed by non-experts such as high school students without the use of any electric device. One of the main goals in this discipline is to develop efficient protocols. The efficiency has been evaluated by the number of required cards, the number of colors, and the average number of protocol trials. Although these evaluation metrics are simple and reasonable, it is difficult to estimate the total number of operations or execution time of protocols based only on these three metrics. Therefore, in this paper, we consider adding other metrics to estimate the execution time of protocols more precisely. Furthermore, we actually evaluate some of the important existing protocols using our new criteria.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)729-740
Number of pages12
JournalInternational Journal of Information Security
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 2021 Oct


  • Card-based protocols
  • Cryptography
  • Real-life hands-on cryptography
  • Secure multiparty computations

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Software
  • Information Systems
  • Safety, Risk, Reliability and Quality
  • Computer Networks and Communications


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