Evaluation of a New Real-Time Dosimeter Sensor for Interventional Radiology Staff

Kenshin Hattori, Yohei Inaba, Toshiki Kato, Masaki Fujisawa, Hikaru Yasuno, Ayumi Yamada, Yoshihiro Haga, Masatoshi Suzuki, Masayuki Zuguchi, Koichi Chida

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)


In 2011, the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) recommended a significant reduction in the lens-equivalent radiation dose limit, thus from an average of 150 to 20 mSv/year over 5 years. In recent years, the occupational dose has been rising with the increased sophistication of interventional radiology (IVR); management of IVR staff radiation doses has become more important, making real-time radiation monitoring of such staff desirable. Recently, the i3 real-time occupational exposure monitoring system (based on RaySafeTM) has replaced the conventional i2 system. Here, we compared the i2 and i3 systems in terms of sensitivity (batch uniformity), tube-voltage dependency, dose linearity, dose-rate dependency, and angle dependency. The sensitivity difference (batch uniformity) was approximately 5%, and the tube-voltage dependency was <±20% between 50 and 110 kV. Dose linearity was good (R2 = 1.00); a slight dose-rate dependency (~20%) was evident at very high dose rates (250 mGy/h). The i3 dosimeter showed better performance for the lower radiation detection limit compared with the i2 system. The horizontal and vertical angle dependencies of i3 were superior to those of i2. Thus, i3 sensitivity was higher over a wider angle range compared with i2, aiding the measurement of scattered radiation. Unlike the i2 sensor, the influence of backscattered radiation (i.e., radiation from an angle of 180°) was negligible. Therefore, the i3 system may be more appropriate in areas affected by backscatter. In the future, i3 will facilitate real-time dosimetry and dose management during IVR and other applications.

Original languageEnglish
Article number512
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2023 Jan


  • eye lens dose
  • fluoroscopically guided interventional procedures
  • fluoroscopy
  • interventional radiology (IVR)
  • occupational radiation exposure
  • percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI)
  • radiation protection and safety
  • real-time radiation sensor
  • X-ray examination


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