Evaluation of the Utility of Vial Packaging to Reduce Occupational Exposure to Antineoplastic Drugs in Preventing Breakages and Scattering

Takahiro Suzuki, Noriyasu Hirasawa

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The dropping of glass vials because of negligence or accidental events that occur during the preparation or mixing of injectable drugs are examples of instances of occupational exposures occurring in a clinical setting. To reduce such risks, several types of glass vial packaging have been developed. We herein compared the resistance of base- and cup-type packaged vials to breakage and scattering of contents during falls with control vials. The falling heights at which the test products were dropped were set to 70, 135, and 180 cm. Compared with results in the control group, appearance changes were inhibited in the cup-type group. Significant differences were found between the cup-type and control groups at heights of 135 and 180 cm. Next, the resistance of the packaging to spilling and scattering of the solution from the vial was determined. There was no scattering in any types of vials at a height of 70 cm because they were not broken. However, at heights of 135 and 180 cm, the mean scattering distances in the control group were 50 and 70.6 cm, respectively. At these heights, some vials in the base-type and cup-type groups were also cracked, but the solution stayed completely inside the covering packaging, indicating an obvious antiscattering ability. Vials packed in cup- and base-type packaging would lower the risk of the exposure to hazardous drugs during vial breakages. Because the base-type packaging did not show significant antibreakage effects, the cup-type packaging is more suited for hazardous drug packaging. However, cup-type packaging requires equipment investments from pharmaceutical manufacturers. Thus, the cost-effectiveness and the target drug profile should be evaluated, and the use of cup- and base-type packaging as well as control forms should be selected accordingly.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)65-74
Number of pages10
JournalPDA Journal of Pharmaceutical Science and Technology
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2022 Jan 1


  • Antineoplastic drugs
  • Hazardous drugs
  • High-alert drugs
  • Occupational exposure
  • Pharmaceutical packaging
  • Vials

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pharmaceutical Science


Dive into the research topics of 'Evaluation of the Utility of Vial Packaging to Reduce Occupational Exposure to Antineoplastic Drugs in Preventing Breakages and Scattering'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this