Experimental and numerical study of the laminar burning velocity of CH4–NH3–air premixed flames

Ekenechukwu C. Okafor, Yuji Naito, Sophie Colson, Akinori Ichikawa, Taku Kudo, Akihiro Hayakawa, Hideaki Kobayashi

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430 Citations (Scopus)


With the renewed interest in ammonia as a carbon-neutral fuel, mixtures of ammonia and methane are also being considered as fuel. In order to develop gas turbine combustors for the fuels, development of reaction mechanisms that accurately model the burning velocity and emissions from the flames is important. In this study, the laminar burning velocity of premixed methane–ammonia–air mixtures were studied experimentally and numerically over a wide range of equivalence ratios and ammonia concentrations. Ammonia concentration in the fuel, expressed in terms of the heat fraction of NH3 in the fuel, was varied from 0 to 0.3 while the equivalence ratio was varied from 0.8 to 1.3. The experiments were conducted using a constant volume chamber, at 298 K and 0.10 MPa. The burning velocity decreased with an increase in ammonia concentration. The numerical results showed that the kinetic mechanism by Tian et al. largely underestimates the unstretched laminar burning velocity owing mainly to the dominance of HCO (+H, OH, O2) = CO (+H2, H2O, HO2) over HCO = CO + H in the conversion of HCO to CO. GRI Mech 3.0 predicts the burning velocity of the mixture closely however some reactions relevant to the burning velocity and NO reduction in methane–ammonia flames are missing in the mechanism. A detailed reaction mechanism was developed based on GRI Mech 3.0 and the mechanism by Tian et al. and validated with the experimental results. The temperature and species profiles computed with the present model agree with that of GRI Mech 3.0 for methane–air flames. On the other hand, the NO profile computed with the present model agrees with Tian et al.’s mechanism for methane–ammonia flames with high ammonia concentration. Furthermore, the burned gas Markstein length was measured and was found to increase with equivalence ratio and ammonia concentration.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)185-198
Number of pages14
JournalCombustion and Flame
Publication statusPublished - 2018


  • Ammonia
  • Laminar burning velocity
  • Markstein length
  • Methane
  • Reaction mechanisms


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