Exposed Long-lifetime First core: A new model of first cores based on radiation hydrodynamics

Kengo Tomida, Masahiro N. MacHida, Kazuya Saigo, Kohji Tomisaka, Tomoaki Matsumoto

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59 Citations (Scopus)


A first adiabatic core is a transient object formed in the early phase of star formation. The observation of a first core is believed to be difficult because of its short lifetime and low luminosity. On the basis of radiation hydrodynamic simulations, we propose a novel theoretical model of first cores, the Exposed Long-lifetime First core (ELF). In the very low-mass molecular core, the first core evolves slowly and lives longer than 10,000 years because the accretion rate is considerably low. The evolution of ELFs is different from that of ordinary first cores because radiation cooling has a significant effect there. We also carry out a radiation-transfer calculation of dust-continuum emission from ELFs to predict their observational properties. ELFs have slightly fainter but similar spectral energy distributions to ordinary first cores in radio wavelengths, therefore they can be observed. Although the probabilities that such low-mass cores become gravitationally unstable and start to collapse are low, we still can expect that a considerable number of ELFs can be formed because there are many low-mass molecular cloud cores in star-forming regions that could be progenitors of ELFs.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)L239-L244
JournalAstrophysical Journal Letters
Issue number2 PART 2
Publication statusPublished - 2010 Dec 20
Externally publishedYes


  • Hydrodynamics
  • ISM:Clouds
  • Radiative transfer
  • Stars:formation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Astronomy and Astrophysics
  • Space and Planetary Science


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