(Pro)renin receptor ((P)RR), a specific receptor for renin and prorenin, is a 350 amino-acid protein with a single transmembrane domain and may play important pathophysiological roles in diabetic nephropathy. The aim of the present study is to clarify the expression of (P)RR in the kidney with end-stage renal disease due to diabetic nephropathy. The kidney tissues were obtained at autopsy from patients with and without Type 2 diabetes mellitus (n = 5 without diabetes mellitus; and n = 8 with diabetes mellitus). Immunocytochemistry showed that (P)RR was mainly expressed in the tubular cells and collecting duct cells of the kidney without diabetic nephropathy. Cells in glomeruli were very weakly and sporadically immunostained for (P)RR. Vascular smooth muscle cells and endothelial cells were very weakly or were not immunostained for (P)RR. Adipocytes in the adipose tissue around the kidney were positively immunostained for (P)RR. Immunostaining pattern of (P)RR in the kidney with diabetic nephropathy was similar to that without diabetic nephropathy. However, most notably, (P)RR immunostaining in the tubular cells and collecting duct cells was clearly and frequently more strongly observed in the kidney with diabetic nephropathy up to the end-stage renal disease. The present study has raised the possibility that (P)RR expressed in the diabetic kidney may play a pathophysiological role in angiotensin I generation and renal fibrosis found in end-stage renal disease.