We have fabricated and characterized field-effect transistors (FETs) with an epitaxial graphene channel on a SiC layer grown on a Si substrate. Epitaxial graphene can be formed on SiC substrates by thermal decomposition of its surface under an ultrahigh-vacuum (UHV) condition. To incorporate the thermal decomposition of SiC on Si substrates, we used an approach of growing a thin 3C-SiC(111) layer on Si substrates and subsequently annealing them in UHV to form graphene on the surface of the 3C-SiC layer. Backgate-field-effect transistors using the SiC layer as a gate insulator were characterized. Although a large amount of gate-leakage current is observed, the drain current modulation by backgate voltage is confirmed by extracting the channel current from the total drain current. The extracted channel current characteristics also suggest that the extracted effective mobility exceeds the universal mobility of bulk silicon under similar circumstances.