Fabrication of hydroxyapatite coatings by the ball impact process

Naohito Hayashi, Sunkichi Ueno, Sergey V. Komarov, Eiki Kasai, Tatsuya Oki

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

14 Citations (Scopus)


The authors applied the ball impact process, developed by the authors' research group, to fabricate hydroxyapatite (HAp) particle coatings on biocompatible metals such as Ti and its alloys. During this process, under ambient temperature, normal pressure, and in a standard air atmosphere, metal or ceramic balls are accelerated and impacted repeatedly on a metal surface by means of mechanical vibrations; simultaneously, powder particles are sandwiched between the balls and the surface. Consequently, the metal surface is rapidly coated with the powder particles. Using a ZrO 2 vibration chamber and ZrO 2 balls, the authors have successfully fabricated high-density HAp particle coatings with a cover ratio greater than 95% and a thickness of 50μm, after several tens of minutes of treatment. Experiments were conducted by varying the parameters such as ball diameter, treatment time, and ball filling fraction. The results revealed that the ball diameter should be greater than 5.0mm and the treatment time longer than 10min for the fabrication of coatings with high cover ratio and sufficient thickness. This is because, under these conditions, mechanical mixing occurs between the Ti substrate and HAp particle coatings at their interface, and this phenomenon is assumed to enhance adhesion. To decrease the surface roughness of the coatings, repeated treatments using small balls are required.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3949-3954
Number of pages6
JournalSurface and Coatings Technology
Issue number19-20
Publication statusPublished - 2012 May 25


  • Adhesion
  • Ball impact process
  • Cover ratio
  • Hydroxyapatite (HAp)
  • Roughness
  • Thickness


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