Far-infrared photodetection in graphene nanoribbon heterostructures with black-phosphorus base layers

Maxim Ryzhii, Victor Ryzhii, Petr P. Maltsev, Dmitry S. Ponomarev, Vladimir G. Leiman, Valery E. Karasik, Vladimir Mitin, Michael S. Shur, Taiichi Otsuji

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


We propose far-infrared photodetectors with the graphene nanoribbon (GNR) array as the photosensitive element and the black phosphorus (bP) base layer (BL). The operation of these GNR infrared photodetectors (GNR-IPs) is associated with the interband photogeneration of the electron-hole pairs in the GNR array followed by the tunneling injection of either electrons or holes into a wide gap bP BL. The GNR-IP operating principle is akin to that of the unitraveling-carrier photodiodes based on the standard semiconductors. Due to a narrow energy gap in the GNRs, the proposed GNR-IPs can operate in the far-, mid-, and near-infrared spectral ranges. The cut-off photon energy, which is specified by the GNR energy gap (i.e., is dictated by the GNR width), can be in the far-infrared range, being smaller that the energy gap of the bP BL of G 300 meV. Using the developed device models of the GNR-IPs and the GNR-IP terahertz photomixers, we evaluate their characteristics and predict their potential performance. The speed of the GNR-IP response is determined by rather short times: the photocarrier try-to-escape time and the photocarrier transit time across the BL. Therefore, the GNR-IPs could operate as terahertz photomixers. The excitation of the plasma oscillations in the GNR array might result in a strong resonant photomixing.

Original languageEnglish
Article number082002
JournalOptical Engineering
Issue number8
Publication statusPublished - 2021 Aug 1


  • black-phosphorus
  • graphene nanoribbon
  • interband radiative transition
  • photodetection
  • terahertz photomixing


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