OBJECTIVE AND IMPORTANCE: Intracranial aspergillosis has been reported to cause subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) attributable to ruptured mycotic aneurysms. We describe a case of Aspergillus arteritis that caused SAH without aneurysm formation, followed by successive brainstem and cerebellar infarction. CLINICAL PRESENTATION: A 50-year-old woman experienced a sudden onset of headache. Computed tomography demonstrated SAH. After angiography revealed an aneurysm of the anterior communicating artery, a complete neck-clipping operation was performed, without neurological deterioration. However, the patient experienced another episode of SAH on the 26th postoperative day. INTERVENTION: We repeated the craniotomy and confirmed that the clip was still intact. A second angiographic evaluation did not reveal an aneurysm or any other cause of hemorrhage. On the 30th postoperative day, magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated cerebellar infarction in the territory of the anteroinferior cerebellar artery. The patient died on the 40th postoperative day, after another episode of SAH and progressive cerebellar and brainstem infarction. The postmortem examination revealed destruction of the basilar artery and occlusion of the basilar and vertebral arteries attributable to Aspergillus arteritis. CONCLUSION: When a patient presents with SAH of unknown origin followed by cerebral infarction, Aspergillus arteritis should be included in the differential diagnosis. Earlier recognition of this fungal infection improves the prognosis.
- Cerebral infarction
- Subarachnoid hemorrhage