FEM simulation of nodulation in copper electro-refining

Ken Adachi, Yuya Nakai, Atsushi Kitada, Kazuhiro Fukami, Kuniaki Murase

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionpeer-review

6 Citations (Scopus)


In the copper electro-refining process, short circuiting between the cathode and anode caused by nodulation has the largest impact on the loss of current efficiency. In order to improve current efficiency, it is critically important to study the mechanism of the growth of the nodule. In this study, the nodulation was modeled using the finite element method to simulate the growth of copper bumps attached to the cathode. By considering the scale of the electrodes and their pitch, the relationship between the height of the nodule and its growth rate is investigated. In particular, a threshold height of the nodule that determines whether the nodule will rapidly grow to come in contact with the adjacent anode is identified. By comparing the result of the simulation and the experiments, the effect of leveling additives and the generation of dendritic growth are discussed.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationRare Metal Technology 2018
EditorsTakanari Ouchi, Neale R. Neelameggham, Shijie Wang, Xiaofei Guan, Bradford Wesstrom, Shafiq Alam, Hojong Kim, Gisele Azimi
PublisherSpringer International Publishing
Number of pages8
ISBN (Print)9783319723495
Publication statusPublished - 2018
EventInternational Symposium on Rare Metal Technology, 2018 - Phoenix, United States
Duration: 2018 Mar 112018 Mar 15

Publication series

NameMinerals, Metals and Materials Series
VolumePart F5
ISSN (Print)2367-1181
ISSN (Electronic)2367-1696


ConferenceInternational Symposium on Rare Metal Technology, 2018
Country/TerritoryUnited States


  • Copper
  • Electro-refining
  • FEM
  • Nodulation
  • Simulation


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