Ferroelectric Behavior of a Hexamethylenetetramine-Based Molecular Perovskite Structure

Hagino Morita, Ryo Tsunashima, Sadafumi Nishihara, Katsuya Inoue, Yuriko Omura, Yasutaka Suzuki, Jun Kawamata, Norihisa Hoshino, Tomoyuki Akutagawa

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47 Citations (Scopus)


We report the development of a molecular ferroelectric material inspired by the hexamethylenetetramine (hmta) non-centrosymmetric molecular rotator. The bromide salt of diprotonated hmta (hmtaH2) crystalized as (hmtaH2)(NH4)Br3 in a metal-free ABX3 perovskite-type structure, in which the A and B sites are occupied by hmtaH22+ and ammonium cations, respectively. The compound crystallized in the Pma2 polar space group. A distorted polar perovskite structure formed owing to the distortion of {(NH4)Br6} octahedrons that are stabilized through the formation of NH⋅⋅⋅Br hydrogen bonds and the orientational ordering of positive charges on the non-centrosymmetric hmtaH2 molecules. This spontaneous polarization exhibited ferroelectric behavior with a nominally high Curie temperature (>400 K), in which the electrical switching of polarization originates from the rotation of the hmtaH2 unit.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)9184-9187
Number of pages4
JournalAngewandte Chemie - International Edition
Issue number27
Publication statusPublished - 2019 Jul 1


  • crystal engineering
  • ferroelectric materials
  • perovskite phases
  • solid-state structures


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