Fifteen years of the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami in Aceh-Indonesia: Mitigation, preparedness and challenges for a long-term disaster recovery process

Syamsidik, Rina Suryani Oktari, Agus Nugroho, Mirza Fahmi, Anawat Suppasri, Khairul Munadi, Rajuli Amra

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

    17 Citations (Scopus)


    It has been a decade and a half since the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami devastated people's lives in Aceh, Indonesia. Over the years, there was a massive reconstruction process, which was conducted between 2005 and 2009, to rebuild the areas affected by the tsunami. The recovery process was later continued by the local government in Aceh. Up until 2019, there have been four different recovery process assessments, i.e. (1) in 2009 performed by the Aceh-Nias Rehabilitation and Reconstruction Agency (BRR Aceh-Nias), (2) in 2012 by Tsunami and the Disaster Mitigation Research Center (TDMRC) and the United Nations Development Program (UNDP), (3) in 2014 by TDMRC and the Aceh Provincial Disaster Management Agency (BPBA), and (4) in 2019 by TDMRC and BPBA. This study is aimed at reporting the progress of the long-term tsunami recovery process from a perspective of disaster management (preparedness, mitigation, and policies). The first three recovery process assessment reports were synthesized using comprehensive literature reviews. During the reviews, this study applied Hyogo Frameworks for Actions (HFA) to identified key achievements during the recovery phases. The fourth tsunami recovery assessment was performed between March and October 2019 through a questionnaire survey involving 1087 respondents within three groups (Individuals, Public Health Clinics/Puskesmas, and Schools) and a focus group discussion. The questionnaire survey was performed in 9 districts in Aceh, which were once severely affected by the 2004 tsunami. The literature reviews of the reports that were previously conducted, identified that large achievements in tsunami mitigation and preparedness were found at the end of 2009. However, the frequency and involving parties in the mitigation and preparedness decreased significantly, especially after 2012. This study also reveals that tsunami preparedness at the community level is in a good condition. However, some schools and Puskesmas are unprepared to face a tsunami emergency situation, due to lack of emergency drills and operational guidelines for efficient tsunami responses.

    Original languageEnglish
    Article number102052
    JournalInternational Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction
    Publication statusPublished - 2021 Feb 15


    • Mitigation
    • Preparedness
    • Puskesmas
    • School
    • Tsunami

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Geotechnical Engineering and Engineering Geology
    • Safety Research
    • Geology


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