Spaceborne imagers are able to observe the airglow structures with wide field of views regardless of the tropospheric condition that limits the observational time of the ground-based imagers. Concentric wave structures of the O2 airglow in 762 nm wavelength were observed over North America on 1 June 2013 from the International Space Station. This was the first observation in which the entire image of the structure was captured from space, and its spatial scale size was determined to be 1200 km radius without assumptions. The apparent horizontal wavelength was 80 km, and the amplitude in the intensity was approximately 20% of the background intensity. The propagation velocity of the structure was derived as 125 ± 62 m/s and atmospheric gravity waves were estimated to be generated for 3.5 ± 1.7 h. Concentric structures observed in this event were interpreted to be generated by super cells that caused a tornado in its early phase.
- concentric structure
- oxygen molecular