Fractal analysis of 4D dynamic myocardial stress-CT perfusion imaging differentiates micro- and macrovascular ischemia in a multi-center proof-of-concept study

Florian Michallek, Satoshi Nakamura, Hideki Ota, Ryo Ogawa, Takehito Shizuka, Hitoshi Nakashima, Yi Ning Wang, Tatsuro Ito, Hajime Sakuma, Marc Dewey, Kakuya Kitagawa

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9 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Fractal analysis of dynamic, four-dimensional computed tomography myocardial perfusion (4D-CTP) imaging might have potential for noninvasive differentiation of microvascular ischemia and macrovascular coronary artery disease (CAD) using fractal dimension (FD) as quantitative parameter for perfusion complexity. This multi-center proof-of-concept study included 30 rigorously characterized patients from the AMPLIFiED trial with nonoverlapping and confirmed microvascular ischemia (nmicro = 10), macrovascular CAD (nmacro = 10), or normal myocardial perfusion (nnormal = 10) with invasive coronary angiography and fractional flow reserve (FFR) measurements as reference standard. Perfusion complexity was comparatively high in normal perfusion (FDnormal = 4.49, interquartile range [IQR]:4.46–4.53), moderately reduced in microvascular ischemia (FDmicro = 4.37, IQR:4.36–4.37), and strongly reduced in macrovascular CAD (FDmacro = 4.26, IQR:4.24–4.27), which allowed to differentiate both ischemia types, p < 0.001. Fractal analysis agreed excellently with perfusion state (κ = 0.96, AUC = 0.98), whereas myocardial blood flow (MBF) showed moderate agreement (κ = 0.77, AUC = 0.78). For detecting CAD patients, fractal analysis outperformed MBF estimation with sensitivity and specificity of 100% and 85% versus 100% and 25%, p = 0.02. In conclusion, fractal analysis of 4D-CTP allows to differentiate microvascular from macrovascular ischemia and improves detection of hemodynamically significant CAD in comparison to MBF estimation.

Original languageEnglish
Article number5085
JournalScientific Reports
Volume12
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2022 Dec

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