Free Sugar Intake and Periodontal Diseases: A Systematic Review

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High free sugar intake is associated with an increased risk of various non-communicable diseases. We aimed to systematically review articles investigating the association between free sugar intake and periodontal diseases. This systematic review was conducted according to PRISMA guidelines and was registered in the PROSPERO database (CRD42022337828). We obtained articles from PubMed, Web of Science, and Scopus in April 2022. The study selection was performed according to predefined eligibility criteria based on the following PECOS: (P) general population, (E/C) free-sugar-containing food/beverage intake, (O) clinically measured periodontal diseases, and (S) observational study and clinical trial. Of the 839 screened records, 13 studies were included in the review. Most studies (n = 12) had a cross-sectional design. The age groups in the included studies were children/adolescents (n = 5) and adults (n = 8). Among the included studies, 11 reported a significant association between the frequent intake of free-sugar-containing food or beverages and a higher prevalence or incidence of periodontal diseases. The quality of most of the included studies was scored “fair” based on the Newcastle–Ottawa Quality Assessment Scale. Although the majority of the included studies reported a significant positive association between high free sugar intake and periodontal diseases, the evidence is considered to be limited due to the study designs.

Original languageEnglish
Article number4444
Issue number21
Publication statusPublished - 2022 Nov


  • confection
  • diet
  • gingivitis
  • non-communicable disease
  • oral health
  • periodontitis
  • snack
  • sugar-sweetened beverages

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Food Science
  • Nutrition and Dietetics


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