Freezability of rat epididymal sperm induced by raffinose in modified Krebs-Ringer bicarbonate (mKRB) based extender solution

Hideaki Yamashiro, Young Joon Han, Atsushi Sugawara, Ikuo Tomioka, Yumi Hoshino, Eimei Sato

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

26 Citations (Scopus)


The objective of this study was to develop an ideal freezing extender and method for rat epididymal sperm cryopreservation. Epididymal sperm collected from 30 Wistar males was frozen, and experiments were conducted to study its post-thaw characteristics when freezing with raffinose-free buffer or various concentrations of raffinose and egg yolk dissolved in distilled and deionised water, PBS, or modified Krebs-Ringer bicarbonate (mKRB)-based extender. Different concentrations of glycerol, Equex STM, or sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) dissolved in either PBS or mKRB containing egg yolk were also tested. Based on the data from these experiments, further experiments tested how different sugars such as raffinose, trehalose, lactose, fructose, and glucose dissolved in mKRB with Equex STM, SDS and egg yolk supplementation affected the post-thaw characteristics of cryopreserved sperm. Cryosurvival of frozen-thawed sperm were judged by microscopic assessment of the sperm motility index (SMI), and acrosome integrity was measured using FITC-PNA staining. Thawed sperm were subjected to 3 h of a thermal resistance test. Beneficial effects on the post-thaw survival of sperm were obtained when 0.1 M raffinose in mKRB was used with 0.75% Equex STM, 0.05% SDS, and 20% egg yolk. Sperm cryopreserved with this treatment exhibited a higher motility index and maintained greater SMI and acrosome integrity throughout incubation when compared to sperm frozen in various concentrations of other cryoprotectants and trehalose, lactose, fructose, glucose. In conclusion, cryopreservation in an extender solution of raffinose dissolved in mKRB containing Equex STM, SDS and egg yolk greatly enhances the freezability of rat epididymal sperm.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)285-294
Number of pages10
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2007 Dec


  • Equex STM
  • Freezability
  • Raffinose
  • Rat sperm
  • mKRB

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
  • Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)


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