Frpm artificial individuals to global patterns

Masakado Kawata, Yukihiko Toquenaga

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

41 Citations (Scopus)


Artificial Life is a model of biological systems that describes lives archived by computer simulation, chemical substrates or any other non-biological substrates. Artificial Life simulation adopts a bottom-up approach in which behavior of lower-level entities (e.g. molecules, cells and individuals) is all that is programed; global patterns (e.g. evolutionary patterns observed at the level of the population and the community) can emerge as a result of interaction among lower-level entities. Artificial Life simulations will be used not only to test ecological and evolutionary hypotheses explaining real organisms but also to show the validity of general theories, processes and concepts such as natural selection, theories of complexity, hierarchical relations and self-organization.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)417-421
Number of pages5
JournalTrends in Ecology and Evolution
Issue number11
Publication statusPublished - 1994 Nov


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