Fuzzy self-adaptive digital audio watermarking based on time-spread echo hiding

Huiqin Wang, Ryouichi Nishimura, Yoiti Suzuki, Li Mao

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

34 Citations (Scopus)


In this paper, a fuzzy self-adaptive digital audio watermarking method based on a time-spread echo hiding algorithm is proposed. Echo spreading is performed in the impulse response domain using PN sequences to achieve good robustness of echo hiding and high secrecy of spread spectrum. Fuzzy theory is employed in the embedding process to control the power of the watermark. Since fuzzy set theory is capable of performing complex nonlinear mappings between input and output spaces, it can effectively estimate the strength of a frame for each subband and ensure that the embedded watermark in the original audio is self-adaptive. A listening test and simulation results show that the algorithm is robust for common digital audio processing methods as attacks and that the quality of the audio is retained.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)868-874
Number of pages7
JournalApplied Acoustics
Issue number10
Publication statusPublished - 2008 Oct
Externally publishedYes


  • Audio
  • Digital watermarking
  • Fuzzy
  • Human audio system
  • Self-adaptive

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Acoustics and Ultrasonics


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