Gain- and loss-of-function in chick embryos by electroporation

Harukazu Nakamura, Tatsuya Katahira, Tatsuya Sato, Yuji Watanabe, Jun Ichi Funahashi

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

95 Citations (Scopus)


It remained very difficult to manipulate gene expression in chick embryos until the advent of in ovo electroporation which enabled the induction of both gain-of-function, and recently loss-of-function, of a gene of interest at a specific developmental stage. Gain-of-function by electroporation is so effective that it has become widely adopted in developmental studies in the chick. Recently, it became possible to induce loss-of-function by introducing an siRNA expression vector by electroporation. In this review, the methods of electroporation for gain-of-function and for loss-of-function by siRNA are discussed.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1137-1143
Number of pages7
JournalMechanisms of Development
Issue number9
Publication statusPublished - 2004 Sept


  • Chick embryos
  • Electroporation
  • Gain-of-function
  • In ovo
  • Loss-of-function
  • siRNA


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