Recently, gastric fundic atrophy is reported to be an independent risk factor for esophageal squamous-cell carcinoma (ESCC). The aim of this study is to investigate the acid secretory level in ESCC in a case-control study. From April 2004 to March 2008, 100 consecutive subjects with early ESCC and 100 age- and sex-matched asymptomatic controls were prospectively enrolled. Gastrinstimulated acid output was assessed by endoscopic gastrin test. Conditional regression analyses were used to adjust for other potential confounders. Multivariate analyses revealed a strong association between profound hypochlorhydria and ESCC with odds ratio (95% confidence interval): 6.0 (1.9-18.4). The association remained significant after adjusting for the effect of gastric atrophy as a covariate. The association became stronger as the ESCC developed more distal site of the esophagus. This study indicates that profound hypochlorhydria is a strong independent risk factor for ESCC even after adjusting for the influence of gastric atrophy.
- Esophageal squamous-cell carcinoma
- Gastric acid secretion
- Gastric atrophy
- H. pylori infection