Gate-Tuned Thermoelectric Power in Black Phosphorus

Yu Saito, Takahiko Iizuka, Takashi Koretsune, Ryotaro Arita, Sunao Shimizu, Yoshihiro Iwasa

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

103 Citations (Scopus)


The electric field effect is a useful means of elucidating intrinsic material properties as well as for designing functional devices. The electric-double-layer transistor (EDLT) enables the control of carrier density in a wide range, which is recently proved to be an effective tool for the investigation of thermoelectric properties. Here, we report the gate-tuning of thermoelectric power in a black phosphorus (BP) single crystal flake with the thickness of 40 nm. Using an EDLT configuration, we successfully control the thermoelectric power (S) and find that the S of ion-gated BP reached +510 μV/K at 210 K in the hole depleted state, which is much higher than the reported bulk single crystal value of +340 μV/K at 300 K. We compared this experimental data with the first-principles-based calculation and found that this enhancement is qualitatively explained by the effective thinning of the conduction channel of the BP flake and nonuniformity of the channel owing to the gate operation in a depletion mode. Our results provide new opportunities for further engineering BP as a thermoelectric material in nanoscale.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)4819-4824
Number of pages6
JournalNano Letters
Issue number8
Publication statusPublished - 2016 Aug 10


  • Black phosphorus
  • Seebeck coefficient
  • electric-double-layer transistor (EDLT)
  • gate-tuning
  • thermoelectric power


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