Protamine-coated multi-shell calcium phosphate (CaP) was developed as a non-viral vector for tissue regeneration therapy. CaP nanoparticles loaded with different amounts of plasmid DNA encoding bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) were used to treat MC3T3E1 cells, and the yield of the released BMP-2 or IGF-1 was measured using ELISA 3 days later. Collagen scaffolds containing CaP nanoparticles were implanted into rat cranial bone defects, and BMP-2 and IGF-1 yields, bone formation, and bone mineral density enhancement were evaluated 28 days after gene transfer. The antibacterial effects of CaP nanoparticles against Streptococcus mutans and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans increased with an increase in the protamine dose, while they were lower for Staphylococcus aureus and Porphyromonas gingivalis. In the combination treatment with BMP-2 and IGF-1, the concentration ratio of BMP-2 and IGF-1 is an important factor affecting bone formation activity. The calcification activity and OCN mRNA of MC3T3E1 cells subjected to a BMP-2:IGF-1 concentration ratio of 1:4 was higher at 14 days. During gene transfection treatment, BMP-2 and IGF-1 were released simultaneously after gene transfer; the loaded dose of the plasmid DNA encoding IGF-1 did not impact the BMP-2 or IGF-1 yield or new bone formation ratio in vitro and in vivo. In conclusion, two growth factor-releasing systems were developed using an antibacterial gene transfer vector, and the relationship between the loaded plasmid DNA dose and resultant growth factor yield was determined in vitro and in vivo.
- growth factor yield
- non-viral gene transfer