Genetic epidemiological analysis of hypouricaemia from 4993 Japanese on non-functional variants of URAT1/SLC22A12 gene

Akiyoshi Nakayama, Yusuke Kawamura, Yu Toyoda, Seiko Shimizu, Makoto Kawaguchi, Yuka Aoki, Kenji Takeuchi, Rieko Okada, Yoko Kubo, Toshihiko Imakiire, Satoko Iwasawa, Hiroshi Nakashima, Masashi Tsunoda, Keiichi Ito, Hiroo Kumagai, Tappei Takada, Kimiyoshi Ichida, Nariyoshi Shinomiya, Hirotaka Matsuo

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

7 Citations (Scopus)


Objectives: Up to 0.3% of Japanese have hypouricaemia. Most cases appear to result from a hereditary disease, renal hypouricaemia (RHUC), which causes exercise-induced acute kidney injury and urolithiasis. However, to what extent RHUC accounts for hypouricaemia is not known. We therefore investigated its frequency and evaluated its risks by genotyping a general Japanese population. Methods: A cohort of 4993 Japanese was examined by genotyping the non-functional variants R90H (rs121907896) and W258X (rs121907892) of URAT1/SLC22A12, the two most common causative variants of RHUC in Japanese. Results: Participants' fractional excretion of uric acid and risk allele frequencies markedly increased at lower serum uric acid (SUA) levels. Ten participants (0.200%) had an SUA level ≤2.0 mg/dl and nine had R90H or W258X and were likely to have RHUC. Logistic regression analysis revealed these URAT1 variants to be significantly and independently associated with the risk of hypouricaemia and mild hypouricaemia (SUA ≤3.0 mg/dl) as well as sex, age and BMI, but these URAT1 variants were the only risks in the hypouricaemia population (SUA ≤2.0 mg/dl). W258X was only a risk in males with SUA ≤3.0 mg/dl. Conclusion: Our study accurately reveals the prevalence of RHUC and provides genetic evidence for its definition (SUA ≤2.0 mg/dl). We also show that individuals with SUA ≤3.0 mg/dl, especially males, are prone to RHUC. Our findings will help to promote a better epidemiological understanding of RHUC as well as more accurate diagnosis, especially in males with mild hypouricaemia.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1276-1281
Number of pages6
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2022 Mar 1


  • fractional excretion of uric acid (FE)
  • genetic epidemiology
  • mild hypouricaemia
  • non-functional variants
  • renal hypouricaemia type 1 (RHUC1)
  • urate transporter 1 (URAT1/SLC22A12)


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