Genetic variations in CYP 2C (CYP2C) subfamily, CYP2C8, CYP2C9, and CYP2C19 contribute to interindividual variability in the metabolism of clinically used drugs. Changes in the drug metabolizing activity of CYP2C members may cause unexpected and serious adverse drug reactions and inadequate therapeutic effects. Therefore, CYP2C gene polymorphism is used as a genome biomarker for predicting responsiveness to administered drugs. The most direct method for understanding the extent of the effects of CYP2C gene polymorphism on drug pharmacokinetics is by evaluating the blood and urine concentrations of the drug in subjects. However, in vivo tests are highly invasive, and considering the risk of adverse drug reactions, the burden on the patient may be significant. In addition, examining the functions of rare variant enzymes with an allele frequency of ≤1% requires at least several hundred subjects. Furthermore, it is extremely difficult to evaluate the functions of all variant enzymes in an in vivo test. On the other hand, in vitro enzyme activity can be evaluated using a heterologous expression system to avoid the aforementioned problems. In vitro tests are extremely important as they complement in vivo information. This review focuses on recent findings of in vitro studies on 3 highly polymorphic CYP2C members: CYP2C8, CYP2C9, and CYP2C19.
- Genetic polymorphism