Organisms have the capacity to adapt to diverse environments, and environmental adaptation is a substantial driving force of evolution. Recent progress of genome science has addressed the genetic mechanisms underlying environmental adaptation. Whole genome sequencing has identified adaptive genes selected under particular environments. Genome editing technology enables us to directly test the role(s) of a gene in environmental adaptation. Genome science has also shed light on a unique organism, Dark-fly, which has been reared long-term in the dark. We determined the whole genome sequence of Dark-fly and reenacted environmental selections of the Dark-fly genome to identify the genes related to dark-adaptation. Here I will give an overview of current progress in genome science and summarize our study using Dark-fly, as a case study for environmental adaptation.