Germylenes as monomers for polymer synthesis

Shiro Kobayashi, Shin Ichiro Shoda, Shaokui Cao, Satoru Iwata, Mitsunori Abe, Kazuo Yajima, Katsuhiko Yagi, Masafumi Hiraishi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

9 Citations (Scopus)


Germylenes have been utilized as monomers for polymer synthesis for the first time. The construction of a repeating unit of O—Ge—O, O—Ge—Ge—O, O—Ge—C, and C—Ge—C as well as the formation of polygermane have been achieved on the basis of new concepts of “oxidation-reduction copolymerization” and “ligand substitution polymerization.” The former involves a redox process between a germylene (reductant monomer, Mred) and an oxidant monomer (Mox). The Mox employed are p-benzoquinone derivatives, cyclic α,β-unsaturated ketones, and substituted acetylenes. During the copolymerization, the germylene (Mred) is oxidized and the Mox is reduced (“oxidation-reduction copolymerization”). The reaction mechanism between germylenes and p-benzoquinone derivatives has been elucidated as copolymerization proceeding via a biradical propagating species involving a germyl radical and/or a semiquinone radical. This is, to our best knowledge, the first clear-cut evidence for a biradical mechanism in polymerization chemistry. A new type of polymerization for the synthesis of polygermanes has been established by the reaction of germanium dichloride and various alkyllithium compounds (“ligand substitution polymerization”).

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1835-1845
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of Macromolecular Science, Part A
Issue number11
Publication statusPublished - 1994 Jan 1

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ceramics and Composites
  • Chemistry(all)
  • Polymers and Plastics
  • Materials Chemistry


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