Pancreatic cystic neoplasms (PCNs) are a heterogeneous group with varying risks of malignancy. To explore the clinical utility of liquid biopsy in cyst type classification, we analyzed the GNAS/KRAS mutations in circulating cell-free DNA (cfDNA) obtained from 57 patients with histologically diagnosed PCNs, including 34 with intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs) and compared the mutant allele prevalence and variant patterns with the paired resected specimens using next-generation sequencing. The positive prevalence of GNAS mutations in cfDNA of patients with IPMN (n = 11, 32%) was significantly higher than that in those with other PCNs (0%, P = 0.002). Conversely, KRAS mutations were detected in cfDNA of only 2 (6%) IPMN patients. The paired-sample comparison revealed highly concordance between the GNAS mutation status of cfDNA and resected IPMN specimens. Similar distributions of GNAS mutation positivity in cfDNA were observed across the different histological grades, whereas IPMNs with intestinal subtype showed a significantly higher prevalence of GNAS mutations than other subtypes (P = 0.030). GNAS mutation positivity in cfDNA was significantly associated with the acellular mucin pool of histological findings in primary IPMN lesions (P = 0.017). Detection of GNAS mutation in cfDNA can serve as a novel biomarker for cyst type classification and differentiation of intestinal subtype IPMN from the other PCNs.