Graphene-based plasmonic metamaterial for terahertz laser transistors

Taiichi Otsuji, Stephane Albon Boubanga-Tombet, Akira Satou, Deepika Yadav, Hirokazu Fukidome, Takayuki Watanabe, Tetsuya Suemitsu, Alexander A. Dubinov, Vyacheslav V. Popov, Wojciech Knap, Valentin Kachorovskii, Koichi Narahara, Maxim Ryzhii, Vladimir Mitin, Michael S. Shur, Victor Ryzhii

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)


This paper reviews recent advances in the research and development of graphene-based plasmonic metamaterials for terahertz (THz) laser transistors. The authors' theoretical discovery on THz laser transistors in 2007 was realized as a distributed-feedback dual-gate graphene-channel field-effect transistor (DFB-DG-GFET) in 2018, demonstrating ∼0.1 μW single-mode emission at 5.2 THz and ∼80 μW amplified spontaneous 1-7.6 THz emission at 100 K. To realize room-temperature, dry-cell-battery operating intense THz lasing with fast direct modulation, various approaches based on graphene plasmonic metamaterials are investigated and introduced as real device implementations, including (i) replacement of the laser photonic cavity with plasmonic cavity enormously improving the THz photon field confinement with larger gain overlapping, (ii) introduction of THz amplification of stimulated emission via current-driven graphene Dirac plasmons (GDPs), and (iii) controlling the parity and time-reversal symmetry of GDPs enabling ultrafast direct gain-switch modulation. Possible real device structures and design constraints are discussed and addressed toward coherent light sources applicable to future 6G- and 7G-class THz wireless communication systems.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1677-1696
Number of pages20
Issue number9
Publication statusPublished - 2022 Apr 1


  • Dirac plasmons
  • current injection pumping
  • distributed-feedback
  • dual-grating-gate
  • graphene
  • instability
  • lasers
  • metamaterial
  • parity- and time-reversal symmetry
  • terahertz

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biotechnology
  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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