Graphene induces spontaneous cardiac differentiation in embryoid bodies

Samad Ahadian, Yuanshu Zhou, Shukuyo Yamada, Mehdi Estili, Xiaobin Liang, Ken Nakajima, Hitoshi Shiku, Tomokazu Matsue

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

37 Citations (Scopus)


Graphene was embedded into the structure of mouse embryoid bodies (EBs) using the hanging drop technique. The inclusion of 0.2 mg per mL graphene in the EBs did not affect the viability of the stem cells. However, the graphene decreased the stem cell proliferation, probably by accelerating cell differentiation. The graphene also enhanced the mechanical properties and electrical conductivity of the EBs. Interestingly, the cardiac differentiation of the EB-graphene was significantly greater than that of the EBs at day 5 of culture, as confirmed by high-throughput gene analysis. Electrical stimulation (voltage, 4 V; frequency, 1 Hz; and duration, 10 ms for 2 continuous days) further enhanced the cardiac differentiation of the EBs, as demonstrated by analyses of the cardiac protein and gene expression and the beating activity of the EBs. Taken together, the results demonstrated that graphene played a major role in directing the cardiac differentiation of EBs, which has potential cell therapy and tissue regeneration applications.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)7075-7084
Number of pages10
Issue number13
Publication statusPublished - 2016 Apr 7


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